Balkan Strategic Studies

August 31, 1993

Iranian and Bosnian Leaders Embark on a New, Major Escalation of Terrorism Against the West

Bombings in Rome, Florence and Milan mark the start of a new wave of Islamist terrorism which has added Italy, Croatia and Germany to the list of major target states. Iran has decided that its "moderation" did not yield dividends, and has returned to terrorism. Contributing Editor Yossef Bodansky reports.

By Yossef Bodansky, Contributing Editor [now Senior Editor]. Iran, Syria and their allies have recently intensified their preparations for the launching of a wave of terrorism in Western Europe, according to reports received by Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy. The first shots of this campaign have already been fired in Italy in the form of a series of car bombs in Rome, Florence, and Milan.

The primary objective of this terrorist campaign is the overall escalation of the Islamist struggle against the West. Both the urgency for, as well as the rationalization of and justification for this terrorist campaign are derived from the plight of the Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Special effort is being made to further ferment and radicalize the Muslim population in Western Europe to the point of active participation in subsequent acts of terrorism. Recently, the Muslim émigré communities in Western Europe have been under growing pressures and siege, ranging from right wing violence, to strict limitation of emigration, to outright public hostility and discrimination. As such, they are more susceptible to the Islamists' recruitment efforts.

Tehran began to actively prepare for the current terrorist assault in the summer of 1992 as part of the anticipated escalation in its covert struggle against the enemies of the Administration. Iran's spiritual leader, Ayatollah Ali Hussein Khamene'i, acknowledged that terrorist organizations were an integral part of Iran's long arm. He warned the West against confronting Iran, pointing out that "they should know that the strength of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in the strength of faith of its HizbAllah forces".

Iran was further tightening its control over the Islamist international terrorist movement, ensuring that it constituted an instrument of Tehran's policy. Ali Fallahiyan-Khuzestani, the Minister of Intelligence and Security Forces (VEVAK), explained that Iran has "a foreign intelligence department that collates the conspiracies hatched by world arrogance against the Islamic Revolution", and that toward this end Iran "even infiltrated the highest levels of government in some countries". He acknowledged that Iranian intelligence conducted violent covert operations all over the world, and that "those activities are on the increase every day".

Tehran's decisions were being quickly implemented in the field. Most notably, VEVAK, now operating directly under President Hashemi-Rafsanjani, was directed to collect intelligence on potential objective for the al-Quds forces, ranging from enemies of the Administration to be assassinated to targets for sabotage in the anticipated escalation of international terrorism.

Indeed, since the fall of 1992 the VEVAK's Western Countries Department has been expanded rapidly to include in addition to Western Europe also North America. The al-Quds Forces were established back in early 1991 from the ranks of the IRGC special forces and intelligence in order to "advise and train Muslims all over the world" on how to accelerate their "struggle" against the West, as well as carry out special operations on behalf of Tehran. Ahmad Khomeini's Service to Islam Organization was incorporated into the new organization, and Khomeini assumed the leadership the al-Quds forces.

Meanwhile, in the Autumn of 1992, the IRGC markedly expanded the training of Sunni Islamist terrorists in Iran. The main training center is the Imam Ali department in Saadabad (the former palace in northern Tehran) where al-Quds forces are being trained.

The chairman is Gen. Muhammad Shams (of the Iranian Army), and his deputy is Gen. Aruji. The commander of al-Quds Forces is Gen. Ahmad Vahidi, formerly the head of the Information Department, the terrorists are primarily trained as instructors and commanders to run and expand networks in their home lands, as well as receive sophisticated sabotage training.

Candidates from "secular" states first receive theological and ideological instructions and tempering in Qom, and only then are sent to military training in the Saadabad camp near Tehran.

Concurrently, the leaders of the Islamist networks in Western Europe were ordered to closely check the strength of networks and theatre conditions in the priority target areas.

The Islamist terrorist strategy for the forthcoming terrorist campaign in the West, and especially the US, underwent a major revision in a special conference of some 300 senior terrorist commanders and Iranian intelligence officials held in Tehran from February 2 to 9, 1993. The primary objective of the conference was to formulate and define the grand strategy of Iran-sponsored international terrorism and set operational guidelines for all other Islamist terrorist groups. Hashemi-Rafsanjani and other Iranian and HizbAllah leaders conceded that Iran's "moderation" had failed to attract the hoped-for Western economic assistance and investment, and that instead, the West (especially the US) was increasingly preoccupied with Iran's power and the spread of Islam.

Therefore, Tehran decided that there was no alternative to the resumption of an uncompromising terrorist struggle against and in the West. Because of its far reaching strategic ramifications, this new terrorist campaign will be conducted under the tight control of Iranian intelligence. Fallahiyan-Khuzestani reiterated Tehran's resolve to support the escalation of "Jihad in all regions where . . . Islamist movements are threatened". Special attention was paid to discussing the revival of "spectacular" terrorist operations such as the kidnapping of foreign, mainly US, hostages, political assassinations of "enemies of Islam", hijacking or blowing up of transport aircraft, and major sabotage operations. In this context, Sheikh Fadlallah delivered a major sermon in which he justified and legitimized the resumption of international terrorism from an Islamic stance. He dwelt on the theological bridging of differences between Shi'a and Sunni Islam with emphasis on key aspects of international terrorism such as martyrdom, that is suicide, operations and the cross-trend issuing of Fatwas, a crucial issue for authorization of spectacular terrorist operations in the West. The conference also decided that many of the terrorist attacks will be attributed to various Islamic "causes" worldwide in order to create the impression of a joint pan-Islamic struggle again the US and the West. Ayatollah Khamene'i, Shamsoddin Wahabi, and Asfar Ali Zadeh emerged as the leaders of the new terrorist surge.

Meanwhile, since the autumn of 1992, and more so since the spring of 1993, there has been a marked expansion of Islamist terrorist infrastructure in Western Europe. At first, HizbAllah teams, led by Hajj al-Latif Salah, began organizing an expanded logistical support system throughout Western Europe. Of special importance is the arrival of senior representatives of major organizations fighting throughout the Muslim World (such as FIS, Nahdah, HizbAllah, HAMAS, etc.). Their presence permits the conduct of Islamist terrorism under the banner of localized causes. There is a growing flow of highly trained terrorists mainly from Sudan, Iran and Afghanistan under the banner of "revolutionary fundamentalist groups." Some 100 to 120 Iranian terrorists and intelligence operatives infiltrated into Western Europe in the spring of 1993 to augment local HizbAllah networks. Their primary expertise was dealing with the enemies of the Administration. A second wave of terrorists, mainly experts in sabotage and dealing with local networks, began arriving in the summer of 1993. At present, some 30 to 40 of them are already in Western Europe, as others keep arriving.

Germany is the organizational center. The Islamist operational headquarters is in Hamburg where Muhammad Baqir Ansari, the personal representative of Ayatollah Khamene'i, is the head of the Islamic Center and Mosque. The political center is in the UK, under the leadership of Rachid Ghannouchi. It constitutes a regional supreme headquarters. Ghannouchi's deputy is Habib Mokhni who is based in Paris. Mokhni maintains the relations and communications with Tehran, and travels to Iran very frequently ostensibly to gain assistance for Algerian humanitarian causes.

Germany has become the center of the Islamist radical trend, riddled with Islamist terrorist networks from countries as diverse as Algeria and Turkey. They all answer without doubt to the Iranian nominated leadership operating out of the Shi'ite Big Mosque in Hamburg. It is noteworthy that this Mosque is open to Sunnis and has special ecumenical services for all in order to ensure acceptability by all extremist branches and organizations.

In addition, the Syrians maintain a center in Aix-la-Chapelle from where Syrian Intelligence works to both entrap followers of the Muslim Brotherhood and run Islamist terrorist operations in the West.

France is one of the primary manpower pools. The radicalization of the three- to five-million strong Muslim community is reflected in the sudden increase in Islamist associations and institutions from 1,050 in 1991 to over 2,000 at present. There is a large community of dozens of militant leaders and hundreds of terrorists from the Maghreb in France, involved in terrorism in home countries and Western Europe. They are reinforced by a steady flow of highly trained "Afghans" from all over the Muslim World, as well as expert terrorists from the Maghreb, especially Algeria, who arrive as refugees. The Hizb-Allah has its own dedicated Ahl-ul-Bayt network led by Muhammad Fadlallah, Sheikh Fadlallah's nephew. It provides support to the new center of Islamic Jihad and the HAMAS in France and Germany.

The militant Islamist influence is already showing. On December 26, 1992, in a gathering of Islamist activists in Paris organized by Algerian militants, there was a call for armed jihad: "The choice of jihad is confirmed by the law of Islam! The ungodly power should be fought with arms!"

The war in Bosnia-Herzegovina is the primary catalyst of the Islamist jihad in and against Western Europe. Indeed, the Bosnian Muslim themselves already threatened to use terrorism against Western targets if their demands were not met. Most reliable was the threat made in late January 1993 by Sefer Halilovic, then the Commander in Chief of the Bosnian Army: "If Europe does not change its attitude, we well take steps and unleash terrorist actions on its territories. Many European capitals will be ablaze." Little wonder, therefore, that the "absolute priority" of the Islamists of Western Europe is "participation in the fighting of the Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina." There is a constant and growing flow of volunteers to the ranks of the Mujahedin in the Balkans. Tehran and its allies are already well underway to incite and exploit these sentiments in order to further their designs for an escalation of the terrorist campaign in Western Europe.

Back in the summer of 1992, Tehran urged and actively supported the establishment of "volunteer forces from all over the Muslim world who would rush to help their brothers in faith in the Balkans." Indeed, Iran has begun active preparations for the establishment of a terrorist infrastructure in the Balkans. In July 1992, the then HizbAllah representatives in Zagreb, Hassan Haidar Dzabom and Radwan Khatounom, convened a conference with several Islamist activists, mainly Arabs and South Asians from the UK, to discuss methods to expand their network through the cover of humanitarian activities. It was decided that support networks would be established by operatives working as volunteers in Islamic and European charities.

The core of the Bosnia-Herzegovina-based Islamist terrorists come from the ranks of the Islamic Jihad forces which are the elite component of the Movement's "international legion" which is led by "Afghans". Meanwhile, since the autumn of 1992, Iran has been maintaining a core of highly professional operatives, mainly Iranians from the Pasdaran and Lebanese from the HizbAllah, who provide expert training and assistance, as well as conduct the most sensitive covert operations (intelligence and terrorism). Tehran continues to provide Sarajevo with weapons and experts. In early-November 1992, more than 50 expert terrorists and instructors of the HizbAllah and the Tawhid (its Sunni counterpart under Sheikh Sha'ban) were sent from Baalbak to Bosnia-Herzegovina to train local cadres and launch terrorist operations on their own. In early 1993, some 60 more members of Iran-controlled terrorist organizations, who had been trained in special camps in Sudan, were went to Bosnia-Herzegovina to help escalate the war. These trainers spearhead an ongoing Iranian effort to deploy a 2,000 strong brigade of Al-Quds Forces. These forces receive substantial Iranian military assistance.

Recently, however, the threat of Islamist terrorism surging out of Bosnia-Herzegovina and being waged in the name of the plight of the local Muslim population has become much more a realistic threat. The turning point was June 8, 1993. On that day, in a special session chaired by Alija Izetbegovic, the Bosnia-Herzegovina Presidency decided on the creation of a new position -- Commander of the General Staff of the Supreme Command of the Army -- and nominated Rasim Delic, then the head of the group for operational and strategic planning of the army, to that new position. Although formally Delic continued to answer directly to Sefer Halilovic, the Chief of the General Staff, there were persistent reports that Delic would be superior to Halilovic. Moreover, by then, Halilovic had already taken over the conduct of intelligence, counter-intelligence and special operations which shifted his attention away from the military.

As a result of this and comparable personnel changes, a new leadership, whose members rose from the ranks of the Army and Intelligence, has emerged in Sarajevo. These leaders are characterized as "angry Muslims" by observers in both Zagreb and Belgrade. The new leaders are convinced that the Islamists' argument that there can be no compromise with, let alone genuine support from, the West to a Muslim state in Europe is correct.

They are committed to, and since mid-June 1993 are preparing for, a long-term war of revenge and terror. In mid-July, Rasim Delic, now the commander of the Muslim Bosnia-Herzegovina Army, predicted that reaching an agreement in Geneva "means the continuation of the war without end. We are now forced to continue the war until we secure a just peace. We have no other choice: : war or destruction."

Delic is committed to the terrorist struggle in the context of Balkan war. Delic vowed to expand the territories held by the Muslims and improve their military capabilities. In this context he warned the "if the arms embargo is not lifted, the war will only drag on. . . . By attacking the enemy where he least expects it we shall more easily deal with the much better equipped aggressor." Moreover, the Islamist Mujahedin would play an important role in the Bosnian strategy. Delic "knows perfectly well that on the front . . . the militia are sometimes controlled by the mafia. These armed gangs infiltrated by some 'mujahedin' [sic.] are perpetrating senseless massacres, like their enemies. 'They are kamikaze, desperate people,' he [Delic] said."

By the summer, the threat of escalating Islamist terrorism has become a form of ultimatum used by Sarajevo in an attempt to impose its will on the international community. In late June, Ejup Ganic anticipated that if Sarajevo did not gain what it wanted, the war will "drag on for 15 years and spawn terrorist attacks in Europe by angry refugees who have flooded out of the republic." He urged the West to comply before it was too late. "I don't want to be responsible for terrorism, but it will happen, especially in Europe. I don't want to participate in that," Ganic said. "The threat by Bosnian Vice President Ganic, to react . . . with attacks must be taken very seriously," warned Slovene Foreign Minister Lojze Peterle. He anticipated that if Sarajevo's demands are not met, "the Muslims will react like radical PLO members".

Simultaneously, in early June 1993, the entire leadership in Tehran emphasized Iran's commitment to redressing the plight of Muslim communities such as Bosnia-Herzegovina. In a gathering of some 200 high-level visitors from Muslim countries and 4,000 other overseas pilgrims to Khomeini's tomb, Ahmad Khomeini stressed that "defending the rights of the oppressed Muslims throughout the world is one of the unalterable principles of Iran's foreign policy." Hashemi-Rafsanjani threatened the West with reprisals for suppressing Muslims and ignoring legitimate rights of Islamist movements world wide. Iran has a direct and legitimate reason for that because the US and the West are "taking revenge on Bosnian and Palestinian Muslims because of their inability to confront Iran." Tehran, on the other hand, does have the means to strike back. "Those who are suppressing Muslim nations under the pretext of fundamentalism, massacring their peoples because of upholding the banner of Islam, and accusing Muslims of having links with Iran, are mistaken," Hashemi-Rafsanjani warned, "they are repeating the Shah's experience". Ayatollah Khamene'i further escalated Iran's message of defiance, resolve, and combative attitude. "Iran will stand steadfast against all plots. Of course in a combat, both side receive some blows and losses. But the question is that the side which surrenders and accepts defeat will be exposed to the hostilities of the opposite side. . . . I say that the people of Iran will stand steadfast with all their strength in the face of this abject plot. We will not allow the principles that are the pillars of the Islamic Revolution and are the cause of the hostility of the enemies to be placed in jeopardy."

In early July 1993, Iran continued to agitate the Muslim World. Tehran declared defiantly that it would only escalate its worldwide struggle against Western influence. "The Iranian nation and government will not help the establishment of the US-style peace, rather consider it a duty to caution the world people against the US conspiracies." Tehran means more than just words, for, Tehran stresses, "the enemies of Islam are not safe from Muslims' anger in any part of the world".

This sudden burst of warnings and threats about Islamist terrorism is not accidental. In July 1993, Slovene intelligence officials warned that "Europe, and also other continents, are to be gripped soon by a wave of Bosnian Muslim terrorism, in comparison with which previous actions [by] Islamic fundamentalists and other terrorist groups are only an innocent child's game." In a policy document, Fikret Muslimovic defined the terrorist operations as "warning the world public about its intolerable passivity in the face of genocide against Muslims and the obvious planned suppression of members of the Islamic faith". Delic explained in reference to the possible revival of the partisan/irregular warfare experience of World War II that "we [his forces] have already resumed the special purpose [arms] production in the free parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina." [See story, page one.]

Preparations for the terrorist campaign are being conducted under the responsibility of a group of senior officials of Bosnia-Herzegovina, led by Sefer Halilovic, Rusmir Mahmutcehavic, and the chief of Bosnia-Herzegovina's military intelligence, Fikret Muslimovic. These terrorist capabilities have become possible with the completion of the first phase of preparations. Since early 1993, Bosnian intelligence and special forces officers have been preparing for the launch of a major terrorist campaign and related contingencies with the help of "volunteers and experts on subversive actions who have come from Syria" with Sarajevo's guidance. The center of the terrorist preparations is the Soda-So factory in Tuzla which was turned into barracks. Foreign experts are based there as well as members of the Bosnian special forces (who commit the ethnic cleansing). Sefer Halilovic is responsible for the operation as far as Sarajevo, and Hamdija Dervisevic is the on-site commander, responsible for interface with the foreign experts and their parent services.

Meanwhile, a comprehensive terrorist and intelligence network is being consolidated all over Europe in order to facilitate these terrorist strikes. Slovene intelligence officials pointed out that "in Croatia, Austria, Slovenia, and other Western countries[,] and extremely effective intelligence-sabotage network is already operating within the framework of various Islamic humanitarian organizations; it includes mostly former and current members of the Iranian, Egyptian, and Afghan armies". Their task, according to Muslimovic, is to "monitor important facilities in individual countries and collect information on them, to monitor the flow of people through individual facilities, and also the security systems for facilities and public and political figures who are known for anti-Islamic statements or who oppose the delivery of weapons to the Muslim people". Slovene intelligence officials stressed the importance of the "assault-sabotage groups" composed of Bosnian volunteers led by two or three expert terrorists, some of whom had already worked with the Bosnians as instructors and advisers. The groups' task is to determine "the situation at facilities suitable for attack" with the assistance of locally based intelligence officers of the supporting states as well as their local assets. Then, the teams "plan and propose plans for sabotage and diversions at specific facilities". Once an operation is approved, it will be carried out by a joint team comprised of Bosnian and Middle Eastern terrorists.

One of the specters of this anticipated new wave of Islamist international terrorism is the possible use of chemical and biological weapons.

The presence of chemical weapons in the Tuzla area, the center of the terrorist preparations, was confirmed by the Bosnian Government. On June 9, 1993, Salih Brkic reported on Radio Sarajevo that the Tuzla District Council decided "to use chlorine and other chemical agents for defense purposes" as a last resort against the Serbs. Andjelko Makar, Chief of Staff of the 2nd Corps of the Bosnian Army based in Tuzla, declared that "the Bosnia-Herzegovina Army will also use unconventional weapons, such as chlorine and other chemical weapons". On the use of chlorine in Tuzla, Gen. Delic acknowledged that "if we had to cause a disaster to prevent the Serbs from invading Tuzla . . . we would do so." [ellipses in original] Even President Alija Izetbegovic "could not dismiss the possibility of using chemical weapons" under extreme conditions. [See page 16.]

The initial objectives of the current Islamist terrorist struggle are Italy, Croatia and, subsequently, Germany.

ITALY was chosen as a target for a combination of Islamist interests and expediency. From an ideological viewpoint, Italy, as the site for NATO aircraft which can strike the Serbs, serves as a proper place to pressure the West for action, as well as avenge the lack of bombing. Italy is also a critical place for punishing Christianity for its conspiracy against Islam, especially in the Balkans. There are also practical reasons for the selection of Italy. When Sarajevo and its allies reached the decision to move, they could rely on an already active Islamist network in place, with preparations for escalation in progress. This Iranian network, along with local 'partners' from organized crime, has been implementing punishment for the collapse of a major nuclear weapons deal in February. The follow-on operations augmented the existing networks, expanding their scope of motives and selection of targets.

It is noteworthy to note that back in the autumn of 1992, Tehran decided to closely examine the escalation of terrorist operations in Italy in connection with the Bosnia issue. Therefore, Muhammad Baqir Ansari traveled to Busana in November 1992 where he organized a conference of Islamist terrorist leaders to discuss options, possibilities, and the status of their networks in Italy. It was decided then to establish a center of operations in Italy in anticipation for the escalation. Consequently, the Islamic Institute in Milan has become the headquarters for Iran, the HizbAllah and Islamist terrorists. The new organization was soon operational. They provided support for an Al-Quds Forces hit team that killed Muhammad Hussein Nagdi in Rome on March 16, 1993.

Meanwhile, in February, the breakup of an organized crime ring in Florence resulted in the collapse of the Iranian deal to purchase "fissionable nuclear material in sufficient quantities to make nine atomic weapons". There emerged a dire need in Tehran for both a revenge and warning for the disruption of such an important deal. The technique and explosives used in the May 27 car bomb in Florence closely resemble known patterns of Iran-sponsored terrorism as reflected in recent IRA and New York bombings.

The escalating terrorist bombing campaign in Italy is an expansion of the original cycle. The first cycle was the May 14 car bomb in Rome, the May 27 car bomb in Florence, and the June 2 car bomb found in Rome. They were essentially an indication of the crucial importance of the Mafia's nuclear trade to Middle East radical states, notably Iran and its allies. Nevertheless, Serb and Croat organizations claimed responsibility for the first two bombs.

Meanwhile, the mandate of the Islamist networks in Italy, and Western Europe as a whole, was being expanded to include the objectives of the Bosnian terrorist campaign. In July 1993, Fikret Muslimovic defined the objective of these terrorist operations as being "to prevent the fulfillment of the Christian plot against the Muslim people. . ." (It should be remembered that Tehran, Khartoum, and the Islamist leadership have a bitter grievance with Pope John-Paul II, especially since his recent visit to Sudan.) Moreover, additional Iran-controlled expert terrorists were deployed to Europe, including to Italy, to augment the local networks. The next wave of terrorism reflected the expanded agenda. On the night of July 27, car bombs damaged two Rome churches, including the Pope's own St. John Lateran Church, as well as a museum in Milan. The bombs were of the same composition as the previous car bombs. While Milan is a site of previously foiled Iranian-Mafia activities, mainly the seizure of large quantities of counterfeit US dollars, the bombs in Rome were aimed directly at the Church.

CROATIA is the objective of bitter revenge. Zagreb is the perpetrator of the great betrayal which Sara jevo attributes, not without Tehran's agitation, to the machinations of the Catholic Church. The Croats also resist Sarajevo's desire for access to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the Bosnian Muslim's desire to inflict immense punishment raises the possibility of Croatia becoming the first target for chemical and biological terrorism in Europe.

The extent of bitterness and hatred felt by Sarajevo toward Zagreb was expressed in a statement of profound importance made by Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic on July 29. "We are much closer to the Serbs than to the Slovenes and Croats. It was really a mistake to conclude an alliance with the Croats," Ganic stated. "If the Serbs conclude an alliance with anyone, they will rather do so with us because strictly speaking, viewed historically, we are Serbs." (Ganic repeated himself, asserting that the alliance with Croatia "was a serious mistake, because the Bosnian Muslims were originally Serbs, who were 'Islamized' [sic] by the Turks. . . . We are related much more closely with the Serbs than with the Slovenes and Croats. We speak a dialect that is more similar to Serbian than Croat. The same goes for mentality, habits, and customs.") Ganic stated that Sarajevo was considering cooperation with the Serbs against the Croats. "The Serbs are just waiting for us to say yes. They have long been prepared to help us in the struggle against the Croats. . . . If we have to choose -- and we have long gotten into this situation -- we prefer the Serbs who are much stronger." Ganic disclosed that the Bosnian Muslims "have already had secret talks with them [the Serbs] . . ."

Ganic stated that Sarajevo has "been cheated" by Zagreb and threatened, "One day Croatia will have to pay for it." The bitterness and hatred he expressed go beyond coming to grips with a failed policy. Ganic lamented that the Croats refused to recognize the Bosnian Muslims as equals and Europeans. "We believed that now we would have to fight alongside the Croats because we are a European people. We form part of the Western World. It was an error." Ganic conceded that Sarajevo has concluded that Western Europe refuses to accept the Bosnian Muslims as an integral part of the Western World. This reality has a direct impact on Bosnian forces. "After all that has happened, the Muslims in Army have also become "fundamentalists'. That cannot be disputed," he acknowledged. "There are no innocents anymore in the current confusions."

This hatred is reflected in the special attention paid by the Bosnian intelligence and terrorism establishment to settling scores with their erstwhile allies, the Croats. In July, Muslimovic specifically told his forces that "the activity of special units is necessary to establish a liberated area in territories where the Croats are settled now, and to reduce their number actively and passively. Particular attention should be paid to activating the operatives who were already included in Croatian units previously as volunteers. It is necessary to act psychologically and also militarily against all Croatian forces, and civilians should be dealt with in the same way as the Army."

Muslimovic anticipates widespread terrorism and sabotage not only against civilian infrastructures such as "electricity transfer installations and strategically important bridges and viaducts," but, specifically, "it is also necessary to poison or contaminate by biological means the water in strong bases of the hostile aggressor force".

GERMANY is also being singled out for the escalation of Islamist terrorism because of its staunch support for the Croats, as well as the determination by the HizbAllah's Special Operations Group to bring about the release of their member, Muhammad Ali Hamadi, from German jail. There are active preparations by Iranian and HizbAllah operatives all over Germany to agitate and incite Muslim émigré communities, especially the Turks, Kurds, Bosnians and Arabs. In mid-July 1993, despite the release of Abbas Hamadi (and rumored clemency of Muhammad Ali Hamadi), there were strong indications in Germany of an impending escalation of HizbAllah-led terrorism by a combination of terrorist experts arriving from the Middle East and activated local assets. German security authorities anticipate a cycle of strikes in Germany and elsewhere throughout Western Europe.

Western Europe may have only been exposed to the first shots in the forthcoming joint Iranian-Bosnian escalation of Islamist terrorism. The active preparations in the field, including the deployment of terrorist experts, clearly reflect the determination of the controlling states to unleash this revenge. What is left to be done is for Tehran and Sarajevo, or perhaps Tuzla instead, to give their operatives the green light.

As the bombings in Italy suggest, this "Go Ahead" order may have already been given.